Frequently Asked Questions...
Why Does China Think It Owns Taiwan?
Isn't kind of dumb for China to think it still owns Taiwan? It has been over 50 years since Taiwan has had its own government. Under international law, it take just 50 years for a country to form. China also used the same law as proof of ownership of Tibet.
To Hao Li: Hawaii chose to become a U.S. state. In 1959, over 90% of Hawaiians chose for Hawaii to become a state and stop being a territory.
And polls show most people in Taiwan don't want to be part of China.
"140000 votes cast, less than 8000 rejected the Admission Act of 1959."
China is bluffing.
They know that they have no legitimate claim to Taiwan's territory.
If you analyze their claims, you will see that they have nothing.
They say that Taiwan has been a part of China from time immemmorial. This is not true.
It was a province of China for a total of 10 years. Taiwan was made a province of Ching Dynasty China from 1885 to 1895.
The Ching Emperor only made it province to try to preempt the Japanese, who had been eyeing it for years. This didn't work. The Japanese trounced the Chinese in a war and took full legal possession and sovereignty of Taiwan (then known as Formosa). Taiwan was a legitimate and internationally recognized part of Japan from 1895 to 1952.
Formosa and the Pescadores, were permanently ceded by Qing Dynasty China to Imperial Japan via Articles 2b and 2c of the Treaty of Shimonoseki in May 8, 1895.
Before that (1683 to 1885) some western coastal regions of Taiwan were under Ching control. The mountain and eastern coastal regions were not claimed by the Chinese, which called those areas savage areas "outside of the Chinese world". They were an unclaimed frontier. The Ching Emperors were very ambivalent about Taiwan and were not interested in claiming or managing Taiwan. They simply wanted to deny its use to any rebels to Ching rule. In fact, Ching Emperor K'ang-hsi expressed the sentiment that Taiwan was "the size of a pellet; taking it is no gain; not taking it is no loss" He also officially regarded Taiwan as "a ball of mud beyond the pale of civilization" There were only about 7,000 Chinese people in Taiwan in 1683 (they had been brought there as workers by the Dutch).
Before that, parts of Taiwan were controlled by Koxinga, a wealthy half-Japanese pirate and Ming loyalist rebel to the Ching regime. Koxinga had kicked out the Dutch. He ruled Taiwan from 1662 to 1683. .
The Dutch ruled Taiwan from 1623 to 1662.
The Spanish had also concurrently occupied northern Taiwan from 1626 to 1642 but their control was not as extensive as the Dutch. Before the Dutch came, there were no ethnically Chinese people on Taiwan.
The name Formosa was given by Portugese sailors but Portugal never occupied Taiwan.
Before that, Taiwan was entirely owned by its indigenous inhabitants. These are Austronesian peoples with various languages and cultures. These original Taiwanese are about 2% of Taiwan's present population. Western people have been in North America longer than Chinese have been in Taiwan.
The Chinese claim that the Taiwanese are ethnically Chinese and that this somehow gives China a right to Taiwan. This is of course risible nonsense.
Yes, they are ethnically Chinese. (hwa ren 華人) No one disputes that. There are also many Chinese in other countries as well. They are a majority in Singapore. They are also signifigant populations in other countries; almost 8 million in Indonesia, 7 million in Malaysia, 7 million in Thailand, over 3 million in the USA.
Also, no one disputes that the Taiwanese language is from Fujian Province in China. Taiwanese people do not deny this.
But ethnicity and language does not equate to a right to claim territory. If that were true, America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and every other English speaking country would have Great Britain aiming missiles at them and keeping them locked out of the international community.
Taiwan could indeed be independent if it weren't blocked by the US. They have every legal right to independence. One point should be made clear:
Taiwan independence is not independence from the PRC; rather, it is independence from the ROC.
There is only one China and that is the PRC. Taiwan is not part of the PRC.China is irrelevant to the Taiwan question! China legally signed Taiwan away in 1895 in perpetuity. Just like Spain signed away California!
Why do the American's always stick their nose into the Taiwan issue?
Because ever since WW2, America has been the legal "Principal Occupier" of Taiwan. Since the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952, America holds the legal title to the Taiwan territory. In its status as the Principle Occupier, the US has plenary disposition rights over the territory of Taiwan. So far, the US has not signed Taiwan over to anyone.
Japan did exercise internationally sanctioned, legal sovereignty over Taiwan and held de jure title to its territory untill it was ceded in the Treaty of San Francisco in 1952.
Pursuant to the SFPT, Japan renounced its sovereignty over Taiwan and title to its territory. Article 2(b) of the SFPT read: "Japan renounces all right, title and claim to Formosa and the Pescadores."
By fleeing to occupied Taiwan in December 1949, the ROC had already become a government in exile.
Under international law, there are no actions which a government in exile can take in its current location of residence in order to be recognized as the local legitimate government. Hence, Taiwan's current international problems have arisen from the fact that the ROC government-in-exile is not internationally recognized as the legitimate government of Taiwan. The ROC should be dissolved and succeeded by a new government of Taiwan.
Taiwan deserves to be a separate and independent country. As one of the "territories which detached from enemy states as a result of the Second World War" defined in the article 76b and 77b of the United Nations Charter, Taiwan has qualified for the UN trusteeship program since 1945! In this program, (like Korea: another former Japanese colony), after a period of time the territory would later be considered fully independent. All members of the United Nations have a treaty obligation to comply with the UN Charter and help the people living in Taiwan enjoy the right of self-determination.
While Article 2(b) of the SFPT did not designate a recipient of "all right, title and claim to Formosa and the Pescadores," Article 23 of the SFPT designated the US as "the principal occupying power" with respect to the territories covered by the geographical scope of the SFPT, including "Formosa and the Pescadores."
Following the entry into force of the SFPT, the ROC government continued to occupy Taiwan under the authority of the US (the principal occupying power)
,The SFPT did not terminate the agency relationship between the US, the principal, and the ROC, the agent, with regard to the occupation and administration of Taiwan.
Following the entry into force of the SFPT on April 28, 1952, the ROC did NOT exercise sovereignty over Taiwan and did not have title to its territory.
China bases their claims to Taiwan on the Cairo Declaration: What a flimsy thing to base a claim on! It isn't even written on paper or signed by anyone. What a joke! You use a radio address as proof while you ignore a ratified international treaty that contradicts it!
The so-called Cairo Declaration was merely an unsigned press communique which does not carry any legal status at all, while the Potsdam Proclamation and Instrument of Surrender were simply modus vivendi and armistice which function as temporary records and do not bear legally binding power to transfer sovereignty.
Good faith of interpretation ONLY takes place at the level of treaties.
The retrocession proclaimed by ROC in 1945 was legally null and impossible since Taiwan was still de jure part of Japan before the post-war San Francisco Peace Treaty came into effect on April 28, 1952. After the San Francisco Peace Treaty came into effect, the sovereignty of Taiwan naturally belonged to the Taiwanese people and none other, but was temporarily held in trust by the USA.
From 1945 to the present, Taiwan has been an occupied territory of the US since they are the principal occupying power. Currently, Taiwan is an occupied territory of the US, and Taiwan's statehood status is disputed and uncertain. Neither the SFPT, the Treaty of Taipei nor any other subsequent legal instruments after 1952 have changed the status of Taiwan.
I think it should be clear now that the US is OBLIGATED to defend Taiwan, since it is US insular territory! That's why the Taiwan Relations Act is a DOMESTIC law of the United States.
It can be seen that the US does not have the best interests of the Taiwanese people at heart in their underhanded handling of this occupation.
If only the US had done right thing when they had the chance. ...
Instead they wanted to have their cake and eat it too.
The international community does not recognize the ROC on Taiwan as a state, because it does not hold the territorial title to Taiwan. In the words of Chiang Kai-shek himself in 1950: "The ROC is a perished nation"
The only country which has the authority or power to grant the Taiwanese people the self-determination which is their right, is acting in a grossly negligent fashion. The US should be supporting the Taiwanese in creating a legitimate civil government. This should have been done in the 1940's or 1950's at the latest.
The US holds all the cards, but won't admit it openly.
This is a strange and confusing state of affairs, but one thing is abundantly clear:
CHINA HAS NO LEGAL CLAIM TO TAIWAN WHATSOEVER
The big surprise is: NEITHER DOES THE ROC.
Taiwan is a cession, whose status is intentionally being kept in an unclear limbo.
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The backstage of the Flamboyant Editorial with Paola Iezzi - "Anarchy in the UK" by Paola Iezzi
Glucosamine was first prepared in 1876 by Dr. Georg Ledderhose by the hydrolysis of chitin with concentrated hydrochloric acid. The stereochemistry was not fully defined until the 1939 work of Walter Haworth. D-Glucosamine is made naturally in the form of glucosamine-6-phosphate, and is the biochemical precursor of all nitrogen-containing sugars. Specifically, glucosamine-6-phosphate is synthesized from fructose 6-phosphate and glutamine as the first step of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway. The end-product of this pathway is UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), which is then used for making glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and glycolipids.
As the formation of glucosamine-6-phosphate is the first step for the synthesis of these products, glucosamine may be important in regulating their production; however, the way that the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway is actually regulated, and whether this could be involved in contributing to human disease remains unclear.
Oral glucosamine is marketed as a treatment of osteoarthritis. Commonly sold forms of glucosamine are glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride. Glucosamine is often sold in combination with other supplements such as chondroitin sulfate and methylsulfonylmethane.
Glucosamine may take weeks to months before improvements in symptoms are noticed.
Restoration of cartilage
A 2009 review concluded that "Little evidence suggests that glucosamine is superior to a placebo treatment in restoring articular cartilage."
A 2009 scientific review of available studies concluded that glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and chondroitin sulfate have individually shown inconsistent efficacy in decreasing OA pain, but many studies confirmed OA pain relief with glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in combined use.
Since glucosamine is a precursor for glycosaminoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans are a major component of joint cartilage, supplemental glucosamine may help to prevent cartilage degeneration and treat arthritis. Its use as a therapy for osteoarthritis appears safe, but there is conflicting evidence as to its effectiveness. A Cochrane 2005 meta-analysis of glucosamine for osteoarthritis found that only "Rotta" preparations (including older studies) found beneficial effects for pain and functional impairment. It also found that when only the studies using the highest-quality design were considered, there was no effect above placebo. In addition, in vitro analysis of glucosamine has revealed that glucosamine inhibits cartilage cell characteristics. Studies reporting beneficial effects have generally used glucosamine sulfate. Chondroitin sulfate is sometimes used in conjunction, and animal studies suggest that chondroitin may increase its efficacy. Two recent randomized, double-blind controlled trials have found no effect beyond placebo in reducing pain, while one found an effect beyond placebo.
A typical dosage of glucosamine salt is 1,500 mg per day. Glucosamine contains an amino group that is positively charged at physiological pH. The anion included in the salt may vary. The amount of glucosamine present in 1500 mg of glucosamine salt will depend on which anion is present and whether additional salts are included in the manufacturer's calculation. Glucosamine and chondroitin are "apparently poor candidates for transdermal [through the skin] absorption", but glucosamine's metabolite N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (NAG) appears to be a better candidate. The ability of NAG to permeate the skin is enhanced by ethanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). DMSO is used to help deliver drugs in veterinary care, but is not approved for use on humans.
Glucosamine is a popular alternative medicine used by consumers for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Glucosamine is also extensively used in veterinary medicine as an unregulated but widely accepted supplement.
Clinical studies have consistently reported that glucosamine appears safe.
Since glucosamine is usually derived from shellfish, those allergic to shellfish may wish to avoid it; however, since glucosamine is derived from the shells of these animals while the allergen is within the flesh of the animals, it is probably safe even for those with shellfish allergy. Alternative sources using fungal fermentation of corn are available.
Some commercially sold glucosamine supplements have other questionable ingredients added such as chinese skullcap, in addition to the more typical chondroitin, and MSM which is often seen too. "Allergic" type reaction may well be to these other ingredients and not the shellfish. People with reactions to these concoctions should also look at such things as red dyes and other needless additives. As noted above, the shellfish warning is just that warningresumably done by the lawyers and not because of a real problem. First hand experience with these since they first appeared in the USA has shown that the "red" pills are much more likely to cause a reaction, and the white ones do not unless chinese skullcap or other herbal additives are also included.[original research?]
Another concern has been that the extra glucosamine could contribute to diabetes by interfering with the normal regulation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway, but several investigations have found no evidence that this occurs. A review conducted by Anderson et al. in 2005 summarizes the effects of glucosamine on glucose metabolism in in vitro studies, the effects of oral administration of large doses of glucosamine in animals and the effects of glucosamine supplementation with normal recommended dosages in humans, concluding that glucosamine does not cause glucose intolerance and has no documented effects on glucose metabolism. It should be mentioned that the authors of the above mentioned review paper (Anderson et. al.) were financially supported by Cargill, Incorporated, Eddyville, IA, a manufacturer of glucosamine as mentioned in the acknowledgments section of the paper. Other studies conducted in lean or obese subjects concluded that oral glucosamine at standard doses does not cause or significantly worsen insulin resistance or endothelial dysfunction.
In the United States, glucosamine is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for medical use in humans. Since glucosamine is classified as a dietary supplement in the US, safety and formulation are solely the responsibility of the manufacturer; evidence of safety and efficacy is not required as long as it is not advertised as a treatment for a medical condition. The U.S. National Institutes of Health is currently conducting a study of supplemental glucosamine in obese patients, since this population may be particularly sensitive to any effects of glucosamine on insulin resistance.
In Europe, glucosamine is approved as a medical drug and is sold in the form of glucosamine sulphate. In this case, evidence of safety and efficacy is required for the medical use of glucosamine and several guidelines have recommended its use as an effective and safe therapy for osteoarthritis. The Task Force of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) committee has granted glucosamine sulphate a level of toxicity of 5 in a 0-100 scale, and recent OARSI (OsteoArthritis Research Society International) guidelines for hip and knee osteoarthritis also confirm its excellent safety profile.
Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics
Two recent studies confirm that glucosamine is bioavailable both systemically and at the site of action (the joint) after oral administration of crystalline glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis patients. Steady state glucosamine concentrations in plasma and synovial fluid were correlated and in line with those effective in selected in vitro studies.
The bioavailability of glucosamine sulfate is around 20%.
Glucosamine is naturally present in the shells of shellfish, animal bones and bone marrow. It is also present in some fungi, such as Aspergillus niger.
The possible effects of glucosamine sulfate in patients with osteoarthritis may be the result of its anti-inflammatory activity, the stimulation of the synthesis of proteoglycans, and the decrease in catabolic activity of chondrocytes inhibiting the synthesis of proteolytic enzymes and other substances that contribute to damage cartilage matrix and cause death of articular chondrocytes.
Glucosamine is an essential substrate in the natural formation of the GAG matrix.
Glucosamine is thought to stimulate synovial production of hyaluronic acid and is also claimed to inhibit cartilage degrading liposomal enzymes.
There have been multiple clinical trials of glucosamine as a medical therapy for osteoarthritis, but results have been conflicting. The evidence both for and against glucosamine's efficacy has led to debate among physicians about whether to recommend glucosamine treatment to their patients.
Multiple clinical trials in the 1980s and 1990s, all sponsored by the European patent-holder, Rottapharm, demonstrated a benefit for glucosamine. However, these studies were of poor quality due to shortcomings in their methods, including small size, short duration, poor analysis of drop-outs, and unclear procedures for blinding. Rottapharm then sponsored two large (at least 100 patients per group), three-year-long, placebo-controlled clinical trials of the Rottapharm brand of glucosamine sulfate. These studies both demonstrated a clear benefit for glucosamine treatment. There was not only an improvement in symptoms but also an improvement in joint space narrowing on radiographs. This suggested that glucosamine, unlike pain relievers such as NSAIDs, can actually help prevent the destruction of cartilage that is the hallmark of osteoarthritis. On the other hand, several subsequent studies, independent of Rottapharm, but smaller and shorter, did not detect any benefit of glucosamine.
Due to these controversial results, some reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of glucosamine. Richie et al. performed a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in 2003 and found efficacy for glucosamine on VAS and WOMAC pain, Lequesne index and VAS mobility and good tolerability.
Recently, a review by Bruyere et al. about glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate for the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis concludes that both products act as valuable symptomatic therapies for osteoarthritis disease with some potential structure-modifying effects.
This situation led the National Institutes of Health to fund a large, multicenter clinical trial (the GAIT trial) studying reported pain in osteoarthritis of the knee, comparing groups treated with chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine, and the combination, as well as both placebo and celecoxib. The results of this 6-month trial found that patients taking glucosamine HCl, chondroitin sulfate, or a combination of the two had no statistically significant improvement in their symptoms compared to patients taking a placebo. The group of patients who took celecoxib did have a statistically significant improvement in their symptoms. These results suggest that glucosamine and chondroitin did not effectively relieve pain in the overall group of osteoarthritis patients, but it should be interpreted with caution because most patients presented only mild pain (thus a narrow margin to appraise pain improvement) and because of an unusual response to placebo in the trial (60%). However, exploratory analysis of a subgroup of patients suggested that the supplements taken together (glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate) may be significantly more effective than placebo (79.2% versus 54%; p = 0.002) and a 10% higher than the positive control, in patients with pain classified as moderate to severe (see testing hypotheses suggested by the data).
In an accompanying editorial, Dr. Marc Hochberg also noted that "It is disappointing that the GAIT investigators did not use glucosamine sulfate ... since the results would then have provided important information that might have explained in part the heterogeneity in the studies reviewed by Towheed and colleagues" But this concern is not shared by pharmacologists at the PDR who state, "The counter anion of the glucosamine salt (i.e. chloride or sulfate) is unlikely to play any role in the action or pharmacokinetics of glucosamine". Thus the question of glucosamine's efficacy will not be resolved without further updates or trials.
In this respect, a 6-month double-blind, multicenter trial has been recently performed to assess the efficacy of glucosamine sulfate 1500 mg once daily compared to placebo and acetaminophen in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee (GUIDE study). The results showed that glucosamine sulfate improved the Lequesne algofunctional index significantly compared to placebo and the positive control. Secondary analyses, including the OARSI responder indices, were also significantly favorable for glucosamine sulfate.
A subsequent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, including the NIH trial by Clegg, concluded that hydrochloride is not effective and that there was too much heterogeneity among trials of glucosamine sulfate to draw a conclusion. In response to these conclusions, Dr. J-Y Reginster in an accompanying editorial suggests that the authors failed to apply the principles of a sound systematic review to the meta-analysis, but instead put together different efficacy outcomes and trial designs by mixing 4-week studies with 3-year trials, intramuscular/intraarticular administrations with oral ones, and low-quality small studies reported in the early 1980s with high-quality studies reported in 2007.
However, currently OARSI (OsteoArthritis Research Society International) is recommending glucosamine as the second most effective treatment for moderate cases of osteoarthritis. Likewise, recent European League Against Rheumatism practice guidelines for knee osteoarthritis grants to glucosamine sulfate the highest level of evidence, 1A, and strength of the recommendation, A.
A 2009 small study has concluded that glucosamine reduces cartilage turnover in osteoarthritis patients in response to physical training.
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^ Chan PS, Caron JP, Orth MW (July 2006). "Short-term gene expression changes in cartilage explants stimulated with interleukin beta plus glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate". The Journal of Rheumatology 33 (7): 132940. PMID 16821268.
^ Bassleer C, Rovati L, Franchimont P (November 1998). "Stimulation of proteoglycan production by glucosamine sulfate in chondrocytes isolated from human osteoarthritic articular cartilage in vitro". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society 6 (6): 42734. doi:10.1053/joca.1998.0146. PMID 10343776.
^ Dodge GR, Jimenez SA (June 2003). "Glucosamine sulfate modulates the levels of aggrecan and matrix metalloproteinase-3 synthesized by cultured human osteoarthritis articular chondrocytes". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society 11 (6): 42432. PMID 12801482.
^ Chan PS, Caron JP, Orth MW (November 2005). "Effect of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate on regulation of gene expression of proteolytic enzymes and their inhibitors in interleukin-1-challenged bovine articular cartilage explants". American Journal of Veterinary Research 66 (11): 18706. doi:10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.1870. PMID 16334942.
^ Uitterlinden EJ, Jahr H, Koevoet JL, et al. (March 2006). "Glucosamine decreases expression of anabolic and catabolic genes in human osteoarthritic cartilage explants". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage / OARS, Osteoarthritis Research Society 14 (3): 2507. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2005.10.001. PMID 16300972.
^ Chu SC, Yang SF, Lue KH, et al. (October 2006). "Glucosamine sulfate suppresses the expressions of urokinase plasminogen activator and inhibitor and gelatinases during the early stage of osteoarthritis". Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry 372 (1-2): 16772. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2006.04.014. PMID 16756968.
^ a b Swarbrick J, ed (2006). Encyclopedia of Pharmaceutical Technology. 4 (Third ed.). Informa Healthcare. pp. 2436. ISBN 978-0-8493-9399-0.
^ Manson JJ, Rahman A (January 2004). "This house believes that we should advise our patients with osteoarthritis of the knee to take glucosamine". Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 43 (1): 1001. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keg458. PMID 12867572.
^ Adams ME (July 1999). "Hype about glucosamine". Lancet 354 (9176): 3534. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)90040-5. PMID 10437858.
^ McAlindon TE, LaValley MP, Gulin JP, Felson DT (March 2000). "Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis". JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association 283 (11): 146975. doi:10.1001/jama.283.11.1469. PMID 10732937.
^ Reginster JY, Deroisy R, Rovati LC, et al. (January 2001). "Long-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial". Lancet 357 (9252): 2516. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03610-2. PMID 11214126.
^ Pavelk K, Gatterov J, Olejarov M, Machacek S, Giacovelli G, Rovati LC (October 2002). "Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: a 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study". Archives of Internal Medicine 162 (18): 211323. doi:10.1001/archinte.162.18.2113. PMID 12374520.
^ Hughes R, Carr A (March 2002). "A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of glucosamine sulphate as an analgesic in osteoarthritis of the knee". Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 41 (3): 27984. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/41.3.279. PMID 11934964.
^ Cibere J, Kopec JA, Thorne A, et al. (October 2004). "Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled glucosamine discontinuation trial in knee osteoarthritis". Arthritis and Rheumatism 51 (5): 73845. doi:10.1002/art.20697. PMID 15478160.
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^ Bruyere O, Reginster JY (2007). "Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate as therapeutic agents for knee and hip osteoarthritis". Drugs & Aging 24 (7): 57380. doi:10.2165/00002512-200724070-00005. PMID 17658908.
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^ Petersen, G.; Saxne, T.; Heinegard, D.; Hansen, M.; Holm, L.; Koskinen, S.; Stordal, C.; Christensen, H. et al. (Jul 2009). "Glucosamine but not ibuprofen alters cartilage turnover in osteoarthritis patients in response to physical training1". Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 18: 34. doi:10.1016/j.joca.2009.07.004. ISSN 1063-4584. PMID 19679221. edit
Glucosamine article, Mayo Clinic
General Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate information from the Arthritis Foundation.
"UDP-N-acetylglucosamine Biosynthesis," Diagram including IUBMB nomenclature and links.
PDR Health Summary of drug information on glucosamine from the publishers of the Physician's Desk Reference.
"Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT)," ClinicalTrials.gov registration and information.
"Effects of Oral Glucosamine on Insulin and Blood Vessel Activity in Normal and Obese People," ClinicalTrials.gov information.
"NIH News: Efficacy of Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate May Depend on Level of Osteoarthritis Pain," Wednesday, February 22, 2006.
"Glucosamine and Chondroitin for Arthritis: Benefit is Unlikely," Summary of and commentary on research findings, including GAIT.
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Amino acids Bodybuilding supplement Energy drink Energy bar Fatty acids Herbal Supplements Minerals Prebiotics Probiotics (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium) Vitamins
Vitamins and minerals
Retinol (Vitamin A) B vitamins: Thiamine (B1) Riboflavin (B2) Niacin (B3) Pantothenic acid (B5) Pyridoxine (B6) Biotin (B7) Folic acid (B9) Cyanocobalamin (B12) Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) Ergocalciferol and Cholecalciferol (Vitamin D) Tocopherol (Vitamin E) Naphthoquinone (Vitamin K) Calcium Choline Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Fluorine Iodine Iron Magnesium Manganese Molybdenum Phosphorus Potassium Selenium Sodium Sulfur Zinc
Other common ingredients
AAKG Carnitine Chondroitin sulfate Cod liver oil Copper gluconate Creatine/Creatine supplements Dietary fiber Echinacea Elemental calcium Ephedra Fish oil Folic acid Ginseng Glucosamine Glutamine Grape seed extract Iron supplements Japanese Honeysuckle Krill oil Lingzhi Linseed oil Milk thistle Melatonin Red yeast rice Royal jelly Saw palmetto Spirulina St John's wort Taurine Wheatgrass Wolfberry Yohimbine Zinc gluconate
Codex Alimentarius Enzyte Metabolife Hadacol Nutraceutical Multivitamin Nutrition
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Anti-inflammatory products (M01A)
Ampyrone Clofezone Kebuzone Metamizole Mofebutazone Oxyphenbutazone Phenazone Phenylbutazone Sulfinpyrazone
Acetic acid derivatives
and related substances
Aceclofenac Acemetacin Alclofenac Bromfenac Bumadizone Bufexamac Diclofenac Difenpiramide Etodolac Fentiazac Indometacin Ketorolac Lonazolac Oxametacin Proglumetacin Sulindac Tolmetin Zomepirac
Ampiroxicam Droxicam Lornoxicam Meloxicam Piroxicam Tenoxicam
Propionic acid derivatives
Alminoprofen Benoxaprofen Dexibuprofen Dexketoprofen Fenbufen Fenoprofen Flunoxaprofen Flurbiprofen Ibuprofen Ibuproxam Indoprofen Ketoprofen Naproxen Oxaprozin Pirprofen Suprofen Tiaprofenic acid
Flufenamic acid Meclofenamic acid Mefenamic acid Tolfenamic acid
Celecoxib Etoricoxib Lumiracoxib Parecoxib Rofecoxib Valdecoxib
Nabumetone Niflumic acid Azapropazone Glucosamine Benzydamine Glycosaminoglycan Magnesium salicylate Proquazone Superoxide dismutase/Orgotein Nimesulide Feprazone Diacerein Morniflumate Tenidap Oxaceprol Chondroitin sulfate
Categories: Amino sugars | Monosaccharide derivatives | Monosaccharides | Dietary supplementsHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009 | Articles with unsourced statements from December 2009 | All articles that may contain original research | Articles that may contain original research from December 2009
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